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Edge of Discovery highlights awe-inspiring innovations and ideas.
(CNN) — Its the second most common cancer for men worldwide, but prostate escort bayan cancer remains difficult to diagnose, with standard blood tests criticized for delivering a high rate of false positives.
But in a study presented in May this year, trained detection dogs were able to identify prostate cancer from a few sniffs of a urine sample with a staggering 98% accuracy, with few false positives. Although the study is by no means conclusive, it joins a growing body of research suggesting dogs could be able to smell out cancers.
However, there are numerous practical problems in using dogs to detect cancers in a medical setting (not least training, consistency and identifying exactly which chemicals the dogs are detecting), which is why scientists are seeking to harness the potential detection ability of mans best friend through the development of an electronic nose capable of making a diagnosis.
Easily sniffed
Finnish researchers are using a device that conducts molecular analysis of the atmosphere in the headspace above urine samples, and tests it for the volatile organic compounds associated with prostate cancer. In a study published earlier this year, the method had a detection rate of 78%, and a specificity (the probability of the test being negative when cancer is absent) of 67%.
Eventually this can be used as a test for every cancer in the Western world.
Dr. Niku Oksala, University of Tampere
We see molecules at the stages when the tumor is very small, said lead investigator Dr. Niku Oksala, of the University of Tampere. We can also find whether it is aggressive or benign to know what action is needed.
Oksalas team is continuing to refine the method, such as through removing impurities for cleaner sample analysis, but he believes the principle is reliable and can be applied to many other cancers.
We have found there are over 30 molecule compounds in a tumor that are very smelly and easily sniffed. Eventually this can be used as a test for every cancer in the Western world, he added.
Around the world, similar approaches are being applied to offer simple diagnosis for the worlds greatest killers. In 2011, the Gates Foundation announced funding for a battery-operated electronic nose prototype in India that functions as a breathalyzer test for tuberculosis.
The NaNose is being developed by the Israeli Technion Institute, claiming 90% accuracy in detecting lung cancer from a breath test, and providing enough information to distinguish between subtypes of the disease.
New generation
Electronic noses are not a new concept. Medical sensors first emerged in the 1980s, but were unable to deliver reliable diagnoses. But in this new generation of devices, experts believe the field has matured.
While the devices today dont come close to mimicking the nose of a dog, Im confident that they will help to recognize diseases based on body odors.
Dr. Gary Beauchamp, director of the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Pennsylvania
The idea been around for over 20 years with many companies making e-noses they thought would be useful for diagnosing diseases, but they were way oversold and that destroyed the idea for a time, says Dr. Gary Beauchamp, director of the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Pennsylvania. While the devices today dont come close to mimicking the nose of a dog, Im confident that they will help to recognize diseases based on body odors.
Cancerous material can be found easily enough, says Beauchamp, but decoding the mass of combinations that form smells remains a difficulty. Odors are a mixture of compounds and that requires pattern recognition. A dog recognizes an individual person through thousands of odors at one time, so you need a device that gives you the same information, and that is the challenge for the next generation.
In the short-term, Beauchamp believes that odor recognition could be used in conjunction with other tests, particularly as a means of non-invasive, early detection that could be followed up if necessary. They could become part of a routine examination in much the same way as blood tests … that seems to me a likely scenario.
There are fears that making diagnosis too widely available could take serious decisions out of the hands of experts, and that unreliable tools could proliferate. But similar techniques are already established outside of medicine, for a range of applications from testing for dangerous chemicals to quality control in food manufacturing.
Companies are already moving toward consumer healthcare applications for the electronic nose. British start-up Owlstone is working on a mobile breath-testing system that would give users instant analysis of their breath, offering early detection of conditions such as diabetes, TB or cancers. NASA technology is also being researched as a mobile sensor for lung cancer.
As molecular analysis becomes cheaper and more reliable the applications are rapidly expanding.

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Finished therapy comes reasons

Editors note: Dr. Robert Gamble, a Presbyterian minister in Atlanta, founded and serves as executive director of This Child Here, a nonprofit that works with former street kids and orphans in the region of Odessa, Ukraine. Gamble lived in Ukraine from 2006 to 2010 and travels there regularly. The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of the author.
(CNN) — She was sitting across from me on the bus in Odessa when we struck up a conversation. Her daughter, maybe 2 years old, was playing with her cell phone. Dressed casually in jeans and a shirt, she told me she had finished university and was entering law school. Her husband was a linguist. They lived in Kiev, but had come to the coastal town of Odessa for vacation.
She asked what I do. This was midway through my four years of living in Odessa. I told her about my organization, This Child Here, and how we work with orphanages and shelters to help Ukrainian children. Aside from spending on what you would expect on the kids — clothes, food and medicine — I told her that Ive paid for horse therapy, sailing lessons, martial arts, English and math lessons, dance classes and more. She listened patiently.
Then she said, I am an orphan.

Robert Gamble

This shocked me. Where did you grow up?
In an orphanage in a small town in west Ukraine, she said. I had two sisters, there was no father around; mom couldnt take care of us. My sisters and I were separated.
I told her, I have never met an orphan who went to university and started law school. Would you mind telling me how you did this?
Above the noise of the bus, she said, You cant believe those people who tell you, Your mother is an alcoholic, your father doesnt want you. You will never be anybody. You have to believe in yourself.
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Ukrainian: We want to be free

A common reason children end up on their own, in an orphanage, or on the streets, is that they were abused. Ukraine is a country that has been abused. The Revolution of 1917, WWII, Stalins starvation of millions, the collapse of the USSR, have all left their marks on Ukraine. Russian President Vladimir Putin is continuing the abuse now by sending troops, tanks and soldiers to Ukraine.
First Putin took Crimea. Now, pro-Russian protesters are calling for regional independence in the eastern Ukrainian cities of Donetsk, Kharkiv and Luhansk. This comes on top of the news that a Ukrainian naval officer was shot dead by a Russian soldier in Crimea. No one knows what will happen next.
Putin is working from the view that Russia is the parent and Ukraine is a child. But Ukraine isnt interested in hearing that narrative any more. The abuse that Ukraine has suffered in history is bad enough. But the attitude that says We own you is even worse.
This conflict is not about Russians versus Ukrainians. Many people in Ukraine speak Russian. They were Russian, now they are Ukrainian. Language isnt the issue. Some Russians have been living in Crimea for generations. They live in harmony with their Ukrainian neighbors. Crimea is their home.
There are also Russians who moved to Ukraine for personal, family or business reasons. Ukraine is a developing country, with more freedom to start a business or to be left alone. Wages are low, but there are many opportunities for growth and investment.
Until the events in Kiev and Crimea, people didnt think in terms of who was born in Russia and who was born in Ukraine. Now, that may be changing.
Putin was enraged by the political fallout in Kiev in February when the Ukrainian parliament impeached pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych after he fled the capital, setting the country up for a new presidential election on May 25. By annexing Crimea, Putin is punishing Ukraine for standing up for itself. But Ukraine is a country learning to believe in itself.
Brooks said it to his team, at least in the film version, Miracle on Ice, as they faced the older, seasoned Russians on the ice. I say it to Ukrainians so engaged in this struggle, You were meant to be here. … This is your time. Their time is done. Its over.
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The pool happened $

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(CNN) — Eight years after he attempted to take his own life, Steven Bowditch is heading to the Masters.
The Australian has battled with depression throughout his career, his nadir coming in 2006 when he attempted to drown himself.
But the 30-year-old has fought back from the brink and, after Sundays win at the Valero Texas Open, he will take to the tee at Augusta National for the first time when the years opening major begins on April 10.
Since his suicide bid in 2006 Bowditch has rebuilt his life and career and is now a spokesman for beyondblue, an Australian organization which raises awareness of depression.
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Steven has long-struggled with a depressive condition and several years ago he publicly explained his plight while raising money for beyondblue, the non-profit organizations chairman Jeff Kennett said in a statement.
Steven today is yet another example to anyone who experiences depressive or anxiety conditions, that by seeking professional help and staying focused you can not only overcome your own struggles, but can rightly be called a champion.
He has triumphed on the toughest golf circuit in the world and it shows that with the appropriate support, people with depression or anxiety are capable of achieving the extraordinary.
It sends a message to all Australians, particularly those in sport, that when you are struggling it sometimes can help to be open and talk about it.
While Steven will today have a wonderful trophy, this achievement itself is a shining prize that will inspire others with depression to reach similar heights.
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Collecting a winners check for $1.2 million, his first on the PGA Tour, is a far cry from where Bowditch eight years ago.
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In an interview with Golf Digest in 2009, Bowditch revealed that, after going 12 days without sleep, he drank an entire bottle of Scotch and fell asleep for two days.
When he woke up, Bowditch put on his heaviest clothes and jumped in a swimming pool in a bid to commit suicide.
His girlfriend dragged him out and resuscitated him.
In clinching the biggest win of his 13-year professional career, Bowditch had to battle wind, moving rocks and the odd cactus..
The world No. 134 took a three-shot lead into Sundays final round but he was three-over on the first four holes allowing American Matt Kuchar into a share of the lead.
Kuchar bogeyed three of the first five holes on the back nine, allowing Bowditch to triumph. His round of 76 was the highest by the winner of an event since Vijay Singh at the PGA Championship in 2004.
After a period of time out there, with the way I was playing, I kind of just accepted the fact that I was going to be playing from cactuses, moving rocks, missing putts and just had to deal with it every time, Bowditch told the PGA Tours official website.
It happened so frequently that it never really surprised me. I was just lucky enough that the wind was up enough today that no one else could squeeze in there and shoot a good score.
When asked how he will get ready for the years first major, the 30-year-old joked: I dont even know how to get there.
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Hood not they

(CNN) — President Barack Obama spoke Wednesday evening about a shooting at Fort Hood, Texas. The White House released a transcript of his remarks:
Hello, everybody. I just got off the phone with Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Sandy Winnefeld to get the latest report on the situation in Fort Hood. Obviously were following it closely. The situation is fluid right now. But my national security team is in close contact with not just the Defense Department but the FBI. They are working with folks on the ground to determine exactly what happened to make sure that everybody is secure. And I want to just assure all of us that were going to get to the bottom of exactly what happened.

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Any shooting is troubling. Obviously this reopens the pain of what happened at Fort Hood five years ago. We know these families. We know their incredible service to our country and the sacrifices that they make. Obviously our thoughts and prayers were — are with the entire community. And we are going to do everything we can to make sure that the community at Fort Hood has what it needs to deal with the current situation, but also any potential aftermath.
Were heartbroken that something like this might have happened again. And I dont want to comment on the facts until I know exactly what has happened, but for now, I would just hope that everybody across the country is keeping the families and the community at Fort Hood in our thoughts and in our prayers. The folks there have sacrificed so much on behalf of our freedom. Many of the people there have been on multiple tours in Iraq and Afghanistan. They served with valor; they served with distinction. And when theyre at their home base they feel safe. We dont yet know what happened tonight, but obviously that sense of safety has been broken once again. And were going to have to find out exactly what happened.
The Pentagon will undoubtedly have further briefings for you as we get more details about what happened.
Thanks, everybody.

this of stop wikipedia

(CNN) — Whether its learning how to read and write or setting up your own farm, a Zambian computer tablet — known as the ZEduPad — is trying to open up the countrys information highway.
The brain child of British tech entrepreneur Mark Bennett, the ZEduPad principally teaches users basic numeracy and literacy skills, aimed at primary school children.
It became clear that there was a huge need for this kind of technology, Bennett said, particularly tablet technology, which has come a long way in Africa in recent years.
After arriving in Zambia 30 years ago under the British Aid Program, Bennett worked in the computer department at the countrys national university for over a decade before deciding to go it alone.
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We can really do something very major for the first time, he said. Weve invested about $5 million to date… Its totally all-encompassing and quite prescriptive so we are aiming at being able to get to an untrained teacher in a deep rural area in the African bush.
Interactive learning
The ZEduPad is programmed in eight different languages native to Zambia with over 12,000 preloaded classes and lesson plans for untrained teachers in rural areas, according to Bennett.
Approved by the Zambian Ministry of Education, the educational tablet allows children to create a personal profile on its seven-inch screen to keep track of their progress as well as exposing them to e-mail and Wikipedia.
Bennett said the ZEduPad is set up to teach grades one to seven through interactive learning in every subject from math to PE, art and music.
The technology comes at a time when Zambias educational system is undergoing sweeping changes. Since 2001, the government has increased primary school enrollment rates by 90%.
As a result, the World Bank has identified the landlocked southern African nation as having one of the most improved primary school education systems in the developing world.
Bennett added: For years there was a problem with funding, education was not keeping up with population growth. Young people coming out of school and not being well suited or prepared to enter the job market…. Were trying to change that.
The ZEduPad gives children a grasp of vital technology skills in a landlocked country where broadband is scarce and only 18% of the nations 14 million people have access to electricity, according to the World Bank.
In addition to following the national curriculum, the tablet also contains farming and health information designed for adults to help prevent the spread of killer diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria.
Outsourcing to China
The ZEduPad is currently manufactured, assembled and branded in China. The devices are then loaded onto a plane and transported to Zambia, where Bennett and his team install the software onto each tablet.
We sell them to teachers and schools for $200 at the moment. We hope to bring that price down.
Mark Bennett, creator of ZEduPad
It costs roughly $100 to have them made and landed here in this country, Bennett said. We sell them to teachers and schools for $200 at the moment. We hope to bring that price down. One of the other things were trying to do is provide significant tech support.
After teachers purchase the ZEduPad, Bennett said his team of experts go into schools and provide tutorials for staff so that they can maximize the tablets functions while learning how to deliver lessons to pupils.
Bennett said the tablet has, at one time or another, helped employ over 250 staff working in the development and distribution of the software from the companys base in the Zambian capital, Lusaka. He says he has approached the government over hiring assembly workers in Zambia but to no avail.
He said that at a time when few companies are manufacturing technology outside of the Far East, production in China is the cheapest and most cost-effective thing to do.
Huge change
Looking ahead, Bennett doesnt want to stop at Zambia but hopes to roll the educational tablet out to a raft of other nations on the continent.
He believes that as countries in the developed world continue to transition from desktop computers to smart devices, Africa has a real chance to leapfrog ahead.
I think the next big challenge is going to come from a lot of people who have got very cheap mobile phones. Well gradually see Android smartphones coming out for $70 or so… Huge change is happening at the moment, Bennett said.
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Undergoing day swim cameras

CNN Labs explores the latest innovations around the world to showcase cutting-edge designs and groundbreaking research in science and technology.
(CNN) — Monsters of the deep will have a man-made horror to contend with, as the Crabster CR200 is released into the oceans. Weighing over half a ton, the six-legged, crustacean-inspired robot is intended for the most dangerous undersea exploration.
Developed by the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), the Crabster offers a solution to a longstanding problem. While propeller-driven craft do not work well in fierce tides, and divers are limited to calm, relatively shallow seas, the new machine mimics the design of crabs and lobsters that live in stormy waters but are still able to control their movements.
The Crabster is 2.4m long, 2.4m wide and 1.3m tall — rising to 1.8m when it stands up. Including payload it weighs around 650 kg, and its six legs contain 30 motors, giving the remote pilot ample control and dexterity. As the Crabster creeps along the ocean floor, it can adapt its posture to different current or pressure conditions, to a depth of around 200 meters. Using sonar, it scans the landscape for objects of interest, and can relay images through onboard cameras.
CR200 will help divers or work instead of them in harsh environments. It also could assist in locating underwater resources.
Bong Huan Jun, Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology
Crabster is undergoing final tests in aggressive waters ahead of its first mission. In May, it will be hunting for ancient artifacts in the Yellow Sea, where existing crafts have failed.
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Lead researcher Bong Huan Jun told CNN the machine had performed very well in tests, but was undergoing constant modification.
We are performing tests nearly every day, Huan Jun told CNN. We upgrade Crabster software for more stable and fast walking and manipulation.
The researcher says the robots speed of just 10 cm/second is one of the main challenges his team face, along with enhancing the vehicles stability in strong currents and on rough terrain. The underwater vision system is another priority. But should Crabster succeed in its maiden voyage, Huan Jun predicts a widespread impact.
We suppose CR200 can conduct seabed mapping, survey and inspection of wrecks, pipelines, ecosystems and pollution down to a 200-meter depth. CR200 will help divers or work instead of them in harsh environments. It also could assist in locating underwater resources, carrying out underwater mining, and responding to oil spill incidents.
Huan Jun hopes his creation will be manufactured for use across the world, and is already looking ahead to future incarnations inspired by nature. We are now studying to make the Crabster to swim like turtles or diving beetles. And we are also considering the hydraulic Crabster for heavy-duty underwater working.
And are the researchers expecting their machine to be accepted in the marine environment? I dont know if the animals treat the Crabster as a real crab or not, says Huan Jun. I thought fish like it more than the other underwater vehicles with propellers that make noise. I hope animals treat Crabster friendly.
As of its introduction this year, any swimmers that come into contact with the robot may hope for the same treatment.
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its no of

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(CNN) — Former world No. 1 Roger Federer had a simple message for those advocates of revamping tennis by allowing on-court coaches — he hopes he will have retired if it ever happens.
On-court discussion with coaches is currently banned at ATP Tour events, but female players are allowed to call for a coach under certain circumstances.
Federer warned against rules changes in tennis following an effortless 7-5 6-1 quarterfinal victory over South Africas Kevin Anderson at the Indian Wells Masters — a win that will see the Swiss star return to the top five of the world rankings.
If it does happen, its hopefully after Im done playing, the 17-time grand slam champion told reporters after the match.
I really dont think its necessary. I dont think its fair, maybe, because not everybody can afford a coach …its just not right.
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Federers comments came after a coaching call appeared to not have quite the required effect in one of the days two womens quarterfinals.
Italian Flavia Pennetta was one set up against American starlet Sloane Stephens, and leading 5-4 in the second set, when she called for her coach.
The Italian proceeded to lose the following three games, and the set, before rallying to take the match 6-4 5-7 6-4.
The rules, introduced in 2009, allow for discussion at one changeover each set, and in between sets.
Federer — once also a vocal opponent of the Hawkeye ball-tracking review system — defended the sport as a one-on-one battleground.
Its cool to figure it out yourself, added the 32-year-old.
You can look over to your coach for comfort and support, but other than that, I think tennis should be one of those unique sports where you dont get coaching.
In little over an hour under the floodlights, Federer completed his 10th successive victory following his win at the Dubai Open earlier this month.
Arriving at the tournament ranked No. 8, Federer will re-enter the worlds top five next week, a position he occupied for more than a decade, before dropping out in August 2013.
I really dont think its necessary. I dont think its fair …its just not right.
Roger Federer
Federer has not dropped a set this tournament and is looking for his fifth Indian Wells title as he heads into a semifinal clash with Alexandr Dolgopolov, who secured a 6-3 6-4 win over Canadas Milos Raonic.
Ukrainian Dolgopolov knocked out world No. 1 Rafael Nadal in the third round and he was in bullish mood ahead of his first semifinal at an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 event.
I played good for three weeks, said the world No. 31.
Im confident enough to come out and play good tennis. Then, who knows? I beat a lot of good players around here, so I wouldnt see why not win more matches.
In the womens draw, Pennetta will meet top-seed Li Na in the semifinals after Chinas world No.2 triumphed in a competitive match against Slovakian Dominika Cibulkova.
Na lost her opening service game, and appeared shaky, but eventually rallied to record a 6-3 4-6 6-3 victory in two hours and 36 minutes.
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